Method of weed and pest control

Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, which attempts to stop weeds, especially noxious or injurious weeds, from competing with desired flora and fauna, this includes domesticated plants and livestock, and in natural settings, it includes stopping non local species competing with native, local, species, especially so in reserves and heritage areas.

Weed control is important in agriculture. Many strategies have been developed in order to contain these plants. Methods include hand cultivation with hoes, powered cultivation with cultivators, smothering with mulch, lethal wilting with high heat, burning, and chemical attack with herbicides (weed killers).

A plant is often termed a “weed” when it has one or more of the following characteristics:

  • Little or no recognized value (as in medicinal, material, nutritional or energy)
  • Rapid growth and/or ease of germination
  • Competitive with crops for space, light, water and nutrients

The definition of a weed is completely context-dependent. To one person, one plant may be a weed, and to another person it may be a desirable plant. In one place, a plant may be viewed as a weed, whereas in another place, the same plant may be desirable.

Weed control plans typically consist of many methods which are divided into biological, chemical, cultural, and physical/mechanical control.

Pesticide-free thermic weed control with a weed burner on a potato field inDithmarschen, Germany

Physical/mechanical methods

Coverings

In domestic gardens, methods of weed control include covering an area of ground with a material that creates a hostile environment for weed growth, known as a weed mat.

Several layers of wet newspaper prevent light from reaching plants beneath, which kills them. Daily saturating the newspaper with water plant decomposition. After several weeks, all germinating weed seeds are dead.

In the case of black plastic, the greenhouse effect kills the plants. Although the black plastic sheet is effective at preventing weeds that it covers, it is difficult to achieve complete coverage. Eradicating persistent perennials may require the sheets to be left in place for at least two seasons.

Some plants are said to produce root exudates that suppress herbaceousweeds. Tagetes minuta is claimed to be effective against couch and ground elder,whilst a border of comfrey is also said to act as a barrier against the invasion of some weeds including couch. A 5–10 centimetres (2.0–3.9 in) layer of wood chip mulch prevents most weeds from sprouting.

Gravel can serve as an inorganic mulch.

Irrigation is sometimes used as a weed control measure such as in the case ofpaddy fields to kill any plant other than the water-tolerant rice crop.

Manual removal

Weeds are removed manually in large parts of India.

Many gardeners still remove weeds by manually pulling them out of the ground, making sure to include the roots that would otherwise allow them to resprout.

Hoeing off weed leaves and stems as soon as they appear can eventually weaken and kill perennials, although this will require persistence in the case of plants such as bindweed. Nettle infestations can be tackled by cutting back at least three times a year, repeated over a three-year period. Bramble can be dealt with in a similar way.

A highly successful, mostly manual, removal programme of weed control in natural bush land has been the control of sea spurge by Sea Spurge Remote Area Teams in Tasmania.

Tillage

Ploughing includes tilling of soil, intercultural ploughing and summer ploughing. Ploughing uproots weeds, causing them to die. In summer ploughing is done during deep summers. Summer ploughing also helps in killing pests.

Mechanical tilling can remove weeds around crop plants at various points in the growing process.

An Aquamog can be used to remove weeds covering a body of water.

Thermal

Several thermal methods can control weeds.

Flame weeders use a flame several centimeters away from the weeds to give them a sudden and severe heating. The goal of flame weeding is not necessarily burning the plant, but rather causing a lethal wilting by denaturing proteins in the weed. Similarly, hot air weeders can heat up the seeds to the point of destroying them. Flame weeders can be combined with techniques such as stale seedbeds (preparing and watering the seedbed early, then killing the nascent crop of weeds that springs up from it, then sowing the crop seeds) and preemergence flaming (doing a flame pass against weed seedlings after the sowing of the crop seeds but before those seedlings emerge from the soil—a span of time that can be days or weeks).

Hot foam (foamstream) causes the cell walls to rupture, killing the plant. Weed burners heat up soil quickly and destroy superficial parts of the plants. Weed seeds are often heat resistant and even react with an increase of growth on dry heat.

Since the 19th century soil steam sterilization has been used to clean weeds completely from soil. Several research results confirm the high effectiveness of humid heat against weeds and its seeds.

Soil solarization in some circumstances is very effective at eliminating weeds while maintaining grass. Planted grass tends to have a higher heat/humidity tolerance than unwanted weeds.

Seed targeting

In 1998, the Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative (AHRI), debuted. gathered fifteen scientists and technical staff members to conduct field surveys, collect seeds, test for resistance and study the biochemical and genetic mechanisms of resistance. A collaboration with DuPont led to a mandatory herbicide labeling program, in which each mode of action is clearly identified by a letter of the alphabet.

The key innovation of the AHRI approach has been to focus on weed seeds. Ryegrass seeds last only a few years in soil, so if farmers can prevent new seeds from arriving, the number of sprouts will shrink each year. Until the new approach farmers were unintentionally helping the seeds. Their combines loosen ryegrass seeds from their stalks and spread them over the fields. In the mid-1980s, a few farmers hitched covered trailers, called “chaff carts”, behind their combines to catch the chaff and weed seeds. The collected material is then burned.

An alternative is to concentrate the seeds into a half-meter-wide strip called awindrow and burn the windrows after the harvest, destroying the seeds. Since 2003, windrow burning has been adopted by about 70% of farmers in Western Australia.

Yet another approach is the Harrington Seed Destructor, which is an adaptation of a coal pulverizing cage mill that uses steel bars whirling at up to 1500 rpm. It keeps all the organic material in the field and does not involve combustion, but kills 95% of seeds.

Cultural methods

Stale seed bed

Another manual technique is the ‘stale seed bed’, which involves cultivating the soil, then leaving it fallow for a week or so. When the initial weeds sprout, the grower lightly hoes them away before planting the desired crop. However, even a freshly cleared bed is susceptible to airborne seed from elsewhere, as well as seed carried by passing animals on their fur, or from imported manure.

Buried drip irrigation

Buried drip irrigation involves burying drip tape in the subsurface near the planting bed, thereby limiting weeds access to water while also allowing crops to obtain moisture. It is most effective during dry periods.

Crop rotation

Rotating crops with ones that kill weeds by choking them out, such as hemp,Mucuna pruriens, and other crops, can be a very effective method of weed control. It is a way to avoid the use of herbicides, and to gain the benefits of crop rotation.

Biological methods

A biological weed control regiment can consist of biological control agents,bioherbicides, use of grazing animals, and protection of natural predators.Post-dispersal, weed seed predators, like ground beetles and small vertebrates, can substantially contribute to the weed regulation by removing weed seeds from the soil surface and thus reduce seed bank size. Several studies provided evidence for the role of invertebrates to the biological control of weeds.

Animal grazing

Companies using goats to control and eradicate leafy spurge, knapweed, and other toxic weeds have sprouted across the American West.

Chemical methods

“Organic” approaches

Weed control, circa 1930-40s

A mechanical weed control device: the diagonal weeder

Organic weed control involves anything other than applying manufactured chemicals. Typically a combination of methods are used to achieve satisfactory control.

Sulfur in some circumstances is accepted within British Soil Associationstandards.

Herbicides

The above described methods of weed control use no or very limited chemical inputs. They are preferred by organic gardeners or organic farmers.

However weed control can also be achieved by the use of herbicides. Selective herbicides kill certain targets while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed. Some of these act by interfering with the growth of the weed and are often based on plant hormones. Herbicides are generally classified as follows:

  • Contact herbicides destroy only plant tissue that contacts the herbicide. Generally, these are the fastest-acting herbicides. They are ineffective on perennial plants that can re-grow from roots or tubers.
  • Systemic herbicides are foliar-applied and move through the plant where they destroy a greater amount of tissue. Glyphosate is currently the most used systemic herbicide.
  • Soil-borne herbicides are applied to the soil and are taken up by the roots of the target plant.
  • Pre-emergent herbicides are applied to the soil and prevent germination or early growth of weed seeds.

In agriculture large scale and systematic procedures are usually required, often by machines, such as large liquid herbicide ‘floater’ sprayers, or aerial application.

Bradley method

See also Bradley Method of Bush Regeneration, which uses ecological processes to do much of the work. Perennial weeds also propagate by seeding; the airborne seed of the dandelion and the rose-bay willow herb parachute far and wide. Dandelion and dock also put down deep tap roots, which, although they do not spread underground, are able to regrow from any remaining piece left in the ground.

Hybrid

One method of maintaining the effectiveness of individual strategies is to combine them with others that work in complete different ways. Thus seed targeting has been combined with herbicides. In Australia seed management has been effectively combined with trifluralin and clethodim.

Pests, weeds and diseases (pests) pose serious risk for primary producers as they can impact on market access and agricultural production. Pest control is best achieved with an Integrated Pest Management plan using a range of biological, chemical, mechanical, physical or cultural control methods.

To reduce the impacts of pests, the Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development:

  • works with landholders and grower/community/biosecurity groups on control
  • provides diagnostic services and information on prevention, management and treatment
  • provides biosecurity measures to prevent introduction, and to eradicate or manage current pests.

Pest and Disease Information Service (PaDIS).

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