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Agriculture: siting of farm and layout of farm structure

Siting of a farm in a appropriate location is very essential for the survival and profitability.

Farm structures are different types of physical constructions that are put up in a farm for the purpose of livestock and crop production.

These structures help increase efficiency of agricultural production.

Most of the farm production processes are carried out under controlled environment in order to maximize the output. For instance:

  1. Animals must be protected from rain, wind or high sunlight intensity in order to keep healthy.
  2. ii) Harvested crops must be protected from water, insects, fungi and extremes of temperatu

iii) Farm machinery must be protected from rain and dirt to keep depreciation level to a minimum.

Siting

Farm structures must be located in suitable areas for a farmer's ease of use. Therefore, siting is very important in the construction of farm structures and buildings.

Sitting refers to locating an area where a particular farm structure or building is to be constructed.

Factors considered when site selecting.

(i) Topography: If the land is too sloppy, there are high chances of landslide occurrence; and if it is too flat, there is likelihood of poor drainage that leads to flooding. A relatively flat free drained area is most suitable.

  1. ii) Prevailing winds and rainfall: Windbreaks are put perpendicular to the direction of wind to reduce wind velocity. Strong winds can destroy buildings. Site the farm buildings facing away from the direction of wind,and away from the direction of prevailing rains in order to minimize chances of water entering the buildings

iii) Soil type: Soil characteristics and strength determine its ability to withstand stress exerted by a building. Erect structures on firm, well-drained soils.

(iv) Nearness to utility sources such as electrical power linestelephone lines and piped water: This allows cheaper access to essential services.

(v) Sewage disposal: The design must be in such a way that the lengths are in straight lines for ease of cleaning when blocked. The system should be accessible to a disposal vehicle.

(vi) Security: The area chosen must be secure against theft, vermin intrusion, fire or tresspassers.

(vii)Accessibility to roads: The farm structures and buildings should be located near the public road. This facilitates fast access of farm produce to the market.

Parts of a farm building

Most farm buildings comprise of the following parts:

(i) Foundation

It is made on the firm sub-soil.

They are laid to a depth of about I-2m depending on the soil type e.g. in clay soils, deep foundations are laid, while in sandy soils shallow foundations are made.

How foundations arlaid

Farm building foundations are laid on a firm soil layer (i.e. sub-soil) since top soil has poor bearing capacity. Therefore it is recommended to dig down to a layer of firm soil. Trench work is done on site after marking out the foundation outline.

Set out and check the diagonals for accuracy, excavate the trench of at least 400 mm wide to allow someone to work in it. The sides of the trench are trimmed to get a straight, vertical and fair finished face of the sides.

(iiWalls

They are vertical loaded parts of a building.

These can be made of stones, bricks, timber, blocks.

They should withstand side pressure from wind etc.

The wall should be strong to carry load of the roof and their own weight.

The type of materialused to construct the wall is determined by the following factors:

(i) Availability of the materials.

(ii) The use of the building.

(iii) Weather conditions of''the place.

(iv) Strength of the soil in the area.

(v) Cost of the materials.

(vi) Level of technology to be used.

iii) Roof

It protects the house from rain, sun, wind and cold.

It provides protection to the animals or stored crops from damage by adverse weather conditions.

Features of a good roof: must be leak proof, able to withstand the load of the roofing material, durable, fire proof and a good insulator of heat.

You will find a video of  layout farm

Cornmon roofing materials are: timber, steel and the roof covers are grass, galvanized sheets, asbestos, tiles, fiber glass, etc.

Roofing

Roofing is done after wall construction.

Procedure for roofing:

  • Positions of the post are marked.
  • Supports for the joints are prepared.

(iii) Timber joints are then fixed on the supports.

  • Firming piece are fixed on the joints to provide the required fall
  • Tongues or grooved boards are fixed on the joints covering the whole roof surface.
  • Fascia boards are nailed at the lower and sloping edges of the roof to conceal the joints. Gutters are fixed to collect water from the roof. Src
Uploaded files:
  • Grouping-and-layout-of-a-farm.jpeg
  • farm-layout.jpeg